Technology and Society in the Making of the twentieth Century

  • Philip Barnes
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Examples of technology-related articles. Examples of technology are televisions, computers, cell phones, iPODS, personal computers, laptops, toys, microwaves, automobiles, iPODS and so on. The power of computers and the Internet – The ability to do basic thinking functions much quicker enables commerce, science and technology to move much more rapidly. The Internet is a very efficient, speedy and affordable way to carry out business as well as research – it can be used to obtain information at the speed of instant messaging. It enables businesses and research teams to deal with clients and customers in far less time.

Schatzberg’s Law – In physics, Schatzberg’s law postulates that energy appears as a definite quantity in space-time. In engineering, it defines the relationship between matter and technology. The specific laws include the Heckscher-Korsakoff-Rosenberg (HKCR) model. According to this model, technology is nothing but a collection of material means. This material means can be used to describe and analyze any phenomenon in three-dimensional reality-space.

Applied Science and Technology – The field of applied science and technology (ASRT) was actually first defined by Carl von Schwab at the outset of the twentieth century. This concept was introduced by Jules Valleeu at the Paris a conference in December, 1924. This phrase is commonly referred to as the Paris School term technology. The phrase was adopted by scholars in the American and European academic community from then on and today it is commonly referred to as applied science or industrial arts. It was named after the French language essay by Joceph Vaupel, translated into English as Vaupel’s Problem.

Cultural Approach to Technology – This is a different type of analysis of technology. This approach is cultural in nature and borrows from the social science terminology of cultural systems. It is a descriptive approach that differs from a deductive approach in that it does not attempt to define, reason from, or prescribe about technological artifacts. Rather it studies cultural practices around technology at a medium to medium distant using such medium as writing, spoken language and art. The various technologies examined are electricity, steam power, trains, aviation, telephones, communications, electricity and cultural differences in access to these technologies.

JKenna, Sailors and Difference – In his book “The Invention of the Mechanical Worker”, Johanna Schatzberg compares and contrasts eighteenth century technological progress with the evolution of eighteenth century artisanal techniques in terms of tools, materials and labor. The analysis is both theoretical and historical. It draws on examples from the works of Elbers, Moll, de Lambrusco, Sailors and others. These include some remarkable examples, such as Elbers’ claim that a sewing machine will allow people to live more cheaply and simply.

Applied Science and Culture – This study traces technological change through the ages from the ancients to the modern era. Schatzberg starts this phase with a detailed examination of the role of technical progress in society. He argues that the rise of the middle classes was a development in which the technical advances created a new set of values and social expectations. This analysis develops into a discussion of two opposing philosophies of technological agency, schatzberg argues between liberal and conservative technologists and aristotlean and rationalist technologists.

The other major strand in the study concerns how technological change impacts the economic order. This aspect is called the economic question. It makes use of Rawls’ idea of “the great chain” and focuses on how technological innovations affect economic institutions. Schatzberg examines how technological change has affected different economic theories including cultural theories of norms, reciprocity, and authority. In his article, he describes five different effects of technological change on the economic order. These include the opening up of opportunities for distributed goods and capital, as offered by modern machines, liberalization of the economy, the rising importance of education and scientific temper, and the impact of innovations on political power.

Industrial Arts – This chapter considers how the nineteenth century industrial revolution transformed art. In particular, it looks at the impact of automation and works of art on the Western arts. John Bach describes how factory work and mass production made possible the creation of artistic genius in the hands of ordinary people. He also describes how twentieth century industrial societies depended on new technologies and the associated social changes to create new ways of understanding the physical world. Edward Said describes how the intellectual elite of the early twentieth century rationalized the workings of industrial machines and argued that art had nothing to do with the process.

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